With the continuous improvement of people's living standards, the pursuit of quality of life is becoming more and more stringent. Diet, as an indispensable physiological requirement for human survival and development, provides important energy and rich nutrients for physical health and daily life. In the process of pursuing the quality of life, people have also begun to realize the important impact of high-quality food on human health. Vegetables, as an important source of energy and ingredients, play an irreplaceable role in the current food culture of people. However, affected by the season and environment, the cultivation of vegetables cannot meet all the needs of people’s diet. The cultivation of some vegetables has extremely stringent requirements for the environment and climate. In order to meet people’s increasingly abundant demand for food materials, it is necessary to start from cultivation techniques. Start by continuously studying the growth habits of vegetables and the required external environment, and through reasonable cultivation and planting to meet the current needs of people for the use of vegetables.
1. The basic characteristics of modern agricultural vegetable planting
1.1 Large-scale production
With the improvement of my country’s agricultural system, vegetable planting and cultivation are developing rapidly in the direction of large-scale, emphasizing the integration of rural land resources through effective methods, and the use of large-scale machinery and equipment in the process of planting, which can effectively reduce The cost of vegetable planting, improve the efficiency of vegetable planting, improve the management level of vegetable planting, facilitate the realization of scientific and standardized vegetable planting, achieve the goal of improving the effectiveness of vegetable cultivation and achieving the goal of high-quality vegetable planting.
1.2 Greenhouse planting technology
Modern agricultural vegetable planting mainly adopts greenhouse planting technology, emphasizing the use of greenhouse planting to improve the yield and quality of vegetables, and focusing on encouraging relevant technical personnel to develop and increase the scale of the greenhouse, so as to make vegetable greenhouse cultivation more convenient, which is more conducive to adaptation The needs of the contemporary market. There is still much room for improvement in the greenhouse planting methods currently used in my country, and mature technical methods must be promoted to the masses, so as to achieve the goal of improving the effectiveness of the operation and meeting the needs of a wide range of planting needs.
1.3 Precision promotion
Modern vegetable planting in my country pays more attention to the use of precise promotion methods, emphasizing the use of targeted vegetable planting promotion methods according to the characteristics of the geographical environment, which is more conducive to optimizing the quality of vegetable planting and more reasonable introduction of vegetable planting technology, so as to The market needs to introduce a large number of new varieties. The popularization of vegetable planting technology must also consider local environmental characteristics and focus on selecting appropriate varieties according to local soil conditions, so as to ensure the effectiveness and rationality of planting technology promotion.
2. Modern agricultural vegetable cultivation techniques and key points
2.1 Film selection
Nowadays, greenhouse planting technology has been widely used. In the construction of greenhouse, the core is the choice of greenhouse film. It is recommended to choose harmless greenhouse film to prevent long-term sunlight from affecting the growth of vegetables. Choose high-quality, damage-proof shed film to prevent the influence of the external environment and extend the service life. At this stage, there are many applications of non-drip anti-aging films, which can increase the intensity of light, provide a suitable temperature and humidity environment for vegetables, and increase production. When planting vegetables, in order to avoid excessively high temperature, corresponding cooling measures should be formulated. Usually, the main cooling methods of large sheds are ventilation and shelter, and shelter and cooling can reduce the temperature in the shed by 5°C. Ventilation can not only achieve cooling but also speed up air circulation, exhaust harmful gases, and reduce the incidence of pests and diseases. However, planters should pay attention to setting the vent in a sheltered position, and replace it regularly to prevent the vent from closing naturally and the temperature from rapidly decreasing.
2.2 Selection of Vegetable Varieties
The choice of vegetable varieties has a direct impact on the quality of vegetable planting. Appropriate vegetable planting varieties should be selected according to the local planting history, regional environmental factors and existing planting technology strength. For example, in winter when the light is weak, you should choose a variety that is suitable for the low temperature environment in winter. It is also necessary to choose seeds that have been certified by the vegetable industry, and to ensure the originality of the seeds. Modern vegetable seeds should pay attention to the selection of hybrid varieties, so that vegetables with better performance can be cultivated. The selection of vegetable varieties should pay more attention to improving the disease resistance of vegetables and the selection of early-maturing and early-product varieties according to local climate and environmental characteristics, so as to achieve better planting quality and yield goals by optimizing varieties.
2.3 Scientific fertilization
Fertilization technology is related to the growth quality of vegetables. Choose fertilizers based on the types of vegetables and soil conditions. Choose organic fertilizers and use them with base fertilizers, but they should not be used for a long time. When fertilizing, ventilate the shed to adjust the trace elements. Organic fertilizers such as manure and cake fertilizer should be used after disinfection and fermentation to reduce the incidence of pests and diseases. At the same time, do a good job of controlling the amount of use, and excessive fertilization is prone to burn roots, soil compaction, and secondary salinization, thereby reducing yield. Therefore, combine vegetable varieties and soil fertilization to prevent blind fertilization.
2.4 Control the room temperature
In the process of greenhouse vegetable cultivation, it is necessary to create a suitable temperature environment for vegetable growth to ensure the healthy growth of vegetables. This requires improving the application and management of greenhouse ventilation technology. In the actual greenhouse planting process, vegetables are more sensitive to temperature. The temperature difference is more sensitive. Once the temperature difference changes too large, it will greatly affect and interfere with the quality of vegetables. Therefore, in the process of vegetable planting, the temperature inside the greenhouse is often regulated by means of ventilation or shading to cool down. . The important significance of the ventilation inside the greenhouse is not only to control the temperature change inside the greenhouse, but also to increase the oxygen content in the space through air circulation. It also has a positive effect and promotion for the humidity control inside the greenhouse and the reduction of pathological disasters.
2.5 Prevention and control of pests and diseases
First of all, we should fully investigate the characteristics of the regional environment, understand the laws of local agricultural pests and diseases, analyze possible pests and diseases according to the needs of the local soil environment, and select vegetable seeds in a targeted manner on this basis. Secondly, use scientific methods. The prevention and control management system focuses on ensuring the cleanliness of the greenhouse, timely removal of weeds, and the appropriate use of pesticides and other means. Third, we should combine agricultural control measures, physical control measures, and chemical control measures, and focus on achieving the goal of preventing and controlling pesticides on the basis of effective control of temperature and humidity in greenhouses. In the process of chemical control, the dosage should be controlled to ensure the rationality of the formula. At the same time, attention should be paid to the use of green fertilizers to reduce the problem of excessive pesticide residues, so as to improve the quality of vegetable cultivation and meet the needs of vegetable growth.
Modern agricultural technology can effectively promote the cultivation and planting of agricultural vegetables in my country. With the continuous improvement of people’s living standards, high-quality vegetables meet the current needs of people’s lives. In the process of vegetable cultivation and planting, through Choosing a reasonable cultivation method can make the planting of vegetables get rid of the influence of the traditional climate and environment, so that people's vegetable needs can be met in different seasons.